BCAA’s Branched Chain Amino Acids

20 Nov

ask-the-science-chick-should-i-drink-bcaas-graphics-1For some people new to fitness nutrition lingo, trying to figure out what BCAAs is referring to may be just as difficult as trying to understand millennial abbreviations like LMAO, FOMO, and ROFL mean.

Or maybe you already know what BCAAs are, but you don’t know if you really need to include them in your fitness routine.

I’m here to tell you, you need them.

There are so many benefits of BCAAs that I don’t know why you wouldn’t want them.

What are those benefits? I’ll go into more detail in this article, but here are a few to spark your interest:

  • Recover from workouts faster
  • Lose fat, NOT muscle
  • Improve performance

Interested yet?

Keep reading to learn the science behind branched chain amino acids.

What are BCAAs?

BCAAs, or branched-chain amino acids, are actually way more simple than they may sound.

BCAAs consist of three different types of amino acids that are especially important for muscle growth and recovery. These three amino acids are Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine.

Branched chain amino acids are mostly found in meat and eggs but the easiest way to get them is in supplement form.

What do BCAAs do?

To understand what BCAAs do, we are going to take a detailed look at each specific amino acid to see how each one benefits you.

Leucine:

Leucine is the MVP, the lead singer, the big dog of branched chain amino acids. This amino has the greatest influence on muscle growth and recovery.

Why is this important?

When you workout out as a lifter, swimmer, rock climber, or anything in between, you create tiny tears in your muscle fibers.

These tiny tears can often cause soreness, scientifically referred to as DOMS. (There I go again, throwing in another acronym for you to debunk.)

DOMS stands for delayed onset muscle soreness, or in simple terms, your muscles hurt and moving can be a struggle.

DOMS can occur 12-24 hours after physical activity and leaves you feeling stiff, achy, and makes squatting to use the toilet surprisingly difficult <- body builders who don’t use BCAAs call this the ‘death drop’. :))

For some, that sore feeling may seem like an accomplishment, but for those who want or need to workout on a daily basis, it can be a downright nuisance.

So how do you avoid DOMS and limping around like you’ve been mortally wounded?

One way is to include a BCAAs supplement! The Leucine will help prevent major muscle damage and assist your body to recover faster.

Isoleucine:

This branched chain amino acid is going to be your new best friend during workouts.

Isoleucine increases your body’s capacity to use glucose, especially during activity.

This means you’ll have more energy for your workouts and the glucose (carbs) you eat will be more efficiently used rather than stored as extra padding for your behind.

When you consume carbohydrates, two things can occur: the sugars are either used as energy, reserved in glycogen stores, or stored as fat.

Most of us have enough fat on our bodies and don’t need anymore. This is why Isoleucine and branched chain amino acids are helpful. Isoleucine helps regulate blood sugars, preventing harmful insulin spikes and drops.

Valine:

Valine has similar properties as Isoleucine and Leucine and works best when combined with them.

Valine, like Leucine, helps your body recover and stimulates muscle growth. Like Isoleucine, valine helps with the uptake and usage of glucose and it may play an important role in muscle coordination and brain function.

Why Use Branched Chain Amino Acids?

I’ve already mentioned some of the benefits of BCAAs, but that was only scratching the surface.

Here are four more impressive benefits of BCAAs:

1.You’ll recover faster.

One study found that branched chain amino acids reduced muscle damage. Another study found those who took a BCAAs supplement before and after a strenuous workout had faster recovery times.

This means you will be able to workout more often at higher intensities while avoiding possible muscle soreness and risk of injury. How many times have you skipped a workout because you were, “too sore”?

More training and less muscle fatigue will mean greater gains in strength and endurance.

2. You’ll lose fat, not muscle.

Research has shown that those who include a BCAAs supplement are more likely to lose unwanted fat while keeping lean body mass.

Many times when people are trying to build muscle and lose fat, they actually lose both. Additionally, beginning in your 30s, you actually begin to lose lean muscle and usually replace it with fat. A natural yet unfortunate process called sarcopenia.

By being physically active, including some kind of strength routine, and including the right kinds of supplements (like BCAAs) you can reduce muscle loss over time.

Branched chain amino acids can also help with muscle retention, keeping you lean and active as you age. How?

By keeping your muscles properly fueled with amino acids from BCAAs, you spare muscle tissue.

Muscle tissue can and is used for energy by the body, especially when calories are restricted and during endurance sports like marathons. Reduce muscle loss with a BCAA supplement!

3. You’ll improve performance.

A study conducted back in the 90s found, “that both mental and physical performance was improved by an intake of BCAA during exercise.”

This is because when amino acids are used for energy, your body prefers to use the amino acids valine, leucine, and isoleucine (aka BCAAs).

Understanding what each of the three BCAAs do, and considering that all amino acids are responsible for every important function in your body, these types of conclusions seem obvious.

If you’ve been doing any kind of sport or physical activity long, you know that it is just as much a mental game as well as physical.

Branched chain amino acids can help boost your mental capacity and keep you in top physical condition to perform your best.

4. They are effective and convenient.

You now know that branched chain amino acids are extremely important, but why supplement them? Why not just eat them naturally in your food?

I’m all about getting my nutrition through my food whenever possible, but for most people getting all the essential nutrients we need naturally in the diet can be difficult.

I’m not saying it can’t be done, but I am saying that supplements can make life much easier.

For example, you would have to eat 4 whole eggs to get the same amount of BCAAs that you could get in one calorie free powder scoop of BCAAs.

If you’re aiming for the recommended 5g of BCAAs before and after a workout, that’s 8 eggs and 560 calories to get 10g of branched chain amino acids that you could get for zero calories.

Besides supplementing being a simple way to get the needed protein and BCAAs in the diet, the powdered form of BCAAs is digested and absorbed quickly by the body.

The BCAAs found naturally in foods such as eggs and beef, take much longer to digest and cannot be immediately used by the body.

When Do You Take BCAAs?

Generally, before and after a workout take one serving or 5-10g of BCAAs. These are the times when your body most needs amino acids.

Others find it helpful to sip on their BCAAs drink during their workout for added energy and hydration.

Those looking to preserve muscle mass may take a serving of branched chain amino acids in the morning.

When you wake up, your body is in a fasted state. Since you haven’t eaten all night long, you are probably burning muscle as a source of energy.

This is bad news if you want to preserve that hard earned lean mass! Taking BCAAs in the morning with a healthy protein filled breakfast can end this muscle breakdown and give you an energy boost to start your day.

Personally, I like to take my BCAAs with my pre-workout drink like Uplift for Her. I conclude my workout with my protein (Trutein is a great protein drink). Currently, for the goals I am trying to achieve I workout 3 times a week. I will shoot for 4-5 once I get closer to my body fat percentage goal. This means I drink my pre-workout drink 3 times a week. I also have a protein shake I drink in the afternoons sometimes for that added boost. This protein has added BCAAs and vitamins to help me along with my goals. I drink Her Whey from NLA.

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I have also found IdealLean to be a great product. I have some client’s who use this but I have yet to try it. I am thinking of Ideal Shape protein/meal replacement to take the place of Her Whey as I like the vitamin content in their shake. I hope I like the flavor, especially more so than the Her Whey which I find to be a bit under the top on the flavor scale.

Happy Training!

Biggest Loser is being Called Out…FINALLY

25 May

biggest loserI knew it was a matter of time but it had to happen. I see this all the time. The Biggest Loser really is a big loser!

I have said it for years…this show is bogus. My professional opinion has always taken that stance – see previous posts about the show, search them on my site. You will see.

There is no quick way to weight loss. If you lose weight too fast you will send your body into starvation mode and your body will store whatever you do eat, when you eat again, as fat! PERIOD! End of story.

It is now coming out that contestants were encouraged to take pills. “Adderall and ‘yellow jackets’ — pills that contain ephedra extract. Ephedra is used to promote weight loss and boost energy, and was banned by the FDA in 2004.” This taken from the New York Post article on the scandal that rocks the Biggest Loser today. Click Here to read that article now.

This does not surprise me one bit. I have seen it happen so many times and I see it happening today. Biggest Loser has been accused of having contestants gain more weight to be on the show, making them sweat it out, forcing them to train like athletes immediately after a sedentary lifestyle, forcing them on below 800 calorie per day diets, forcing them to throw up to lose weight, sweat it out, and now having them take diet pills. All of the above lead to a guarantee of weight gain when the previous mentioned methods are not maintained for life. And it is impossible to maintain those methods for life. IMPOSSIBLE! Not only are they impossible to maintain but they are also lead to a lifetime of poor health and psychological illnesses as well as eating disorders.

This is one of my biggest pet peeves!!

I watched my ex-husband go on an extremely low calorie diet to lose 150# back in 1998. He looked great, back then, but he gained it all back and then some. He still, to this day, yo-yo’s on his weight. And he never achieved the 150# weight loss again. He also has health issues, probably will for a lifetime.

One of his favorite ways to lose weight was he would drink a diet coke, eat a bag of pretzels but he wouldn’t eat the pretzels. He would spit the remnants back into the empty diet coke bottle so he could get the taste of food. Oh my, that was lovely. NOT!

I feel so sorry for those contestants on that show. I always knew something was not right about it. I promote health. I have studied under some of the finest personal trainers. I have been a certified fitness trainer for 13 years now. It only works when you do it the right way and let me add this, for the right reasons.

Repost from September 23, 2010 about Biggest Loser

24 May

PLEASE NOTE THIS IS A RE-POST FROM 2010….6 YEARS AGO!!! I AM ABOUT TO GO ON A RANT ABOUT THE BIGGEST LOSER AND I WANT YOU TO SEE MY THOUGHTS IN TIME…..6 YEARS AGO!!the-biggest-loser!

The Biggest Loser Premier was on the other night and I watched parts of it on my DVR yesterday and once again the show did not let me down in the crazy way they introduce fitness to severely overweight people!! Am I the only one who sees the danger in all this insanity? Please tell me!! Comments welcome.

I watch the show out of sheer interest to learn more about fitness which is my passion. And I truly love Jillian Michaels and think she is a great trainer. HOWEVER, the show lacks a true perspective on what is really at stake here and that is people’s lives. Ironic huh? Is it going to take someone dying for them to get this? Heck a gal almost did just that – and she did not make the show. “Lucky for her!” I say.

This season the show is all about “paying it forward” – so they say. The only thing I see them paying forward is leaving so many overweight people in the dust.  They went from city to city, picking 3 overweight people out of this huge crowd of people for the show. Then these 3 people  had to compete in a fitness challenge and only 2 people who won these competitions then got to be on the show. Hmmm – how is that paying it forward? I would think the most un-fit person would benefit most from being on the show but then again this show is called The Biggest Loser for a reason!!

I watched a couple of competitions in pain and agony as these poor people struggled!! And I fast forwarded through most of them because it was just too painful to watch.

But then there was one. And talk about painful, this one was agony!!! This poor girl was struggling to climb 500 steps and then started having an asthma attack. Oh but Jillian was there with her inhaler (*insert sarcasm here)! The poor girl then passed out. Paramedics were standing by. How convenient? And, get this, the competition continued!!! Yes it did!! The poor girl was back there dying – literally. And the two guys who were already going to win their way into the show still continued to climb the stairs, while the audience cheered. YES, The Biggest LOSER is in fact The Biggest LOSER!!

Mind you that poor girl had spilled her guts in the diary room on camera on national television about how she had been in an abusive relationship and how she had gotten into this condition in the first place. And now she was left behind – in a trail of dust. Is The Biggest Loser going to really help her? I doubt it. They did not pay it forward, they dropped the ball as far as I am concerned.

They do this in the name of health? Yeah right! I’m sorry but as a Certified Fitness Trainer I see the lack of help and concern for true fitness on this show. You simply cannot throw an unfit person into a gym and make them start working like an athlete after they have been sitting on the couch for years. You have to condition the body into fitness and slowly get the heart back into shape. You run the risk of heart attack right then and there. This show does not teach this concept and therefore, we have unfit people hitting the gym and pushing the limits in gyms all over America and having serious health issues, including heart attacks. I know CPR and we have to be certified in CPR for this very reason. But I tell you I really do not want to perform it!! Jillian and those trainers on that show have a slew of doctors standing by ready to jump on any condition that arises – I don’t.

Please take it slow when entering a fitness program. You can lose weight and it will drop off fast if you weigh a lot even if you start off slow.

If you like this article you will also like: Losing It with Jillian Michaels (this article tells you how to calculate your heart rate)%

Benefits of HIITs

27 Feb

HIIT

Just about everyone I train MUST do HIITs (High Intensity Interval Training) because everyone can benefit from HIITs. If you are not working hard enough during your 30 second (or whatever time frame you are working on at the time) intense training you are NOT doing HIITs. You can do HIITs anytime, any place. For example, while walking in your neighborhood warm up for a few minutes then go into a brisk walk for a few houses or blocks, then slow down and rest walk. Continue this type of pace throughout your walk. If you need to jog for a bit to make your interval intense enough I recommend doing that. You can also jog and run full out during your interval if you are fit and/or a runner.

I do not recommend using the Interval program on cardio equipment, unless of course you cannot pay attention to the time and need to be reminded that it is time to interval train. But know there is a huge chance you will not work hard enough to hit your peak heart rate.  Simply train yourself to work very hard during your interval cycle and continue your rest work long enough to bring your heart rate down . 

In a nutshell, short term, the benefit of low volume HIIT programs are:

  1. Cause metabolic adaptations as longer term, higher volume endurance training. This means that you build stamina and improve your metabolism.
  2. Improve heart function
  3. Reduce the severity of Type II Diabetes
  4. Aid in weight loss in as little as one or two workouts per week.
  5. Improve aerobic fitness, heart function, blood glucose levels, fat loss, and overall fitness levels.
  6. The rest interval is the important part of interval training.  If you aren’t resting between intervals, you’re not doing HIIT! I cannot stress this enough.
  7.  Without adequate rest, the body is unable to recover from the short bursts of higher intensity work, which eliminates the possibility to sustain a high level of intensity for the entire length of the exercise session (Seiler, 2009)
  8. Generally speaking, the higher the intensity of the interval, the shorter its duration, and the longer the recovery period. Interval training sessions usually last less an hour including rest periods and more intense sessions can be less than 25 minutes.

hiit chart

Train Like A Champion!

Athletes of All Ages Succeed with the Help of a Personal Trainer

27 Aug

Sports are big business – profitable for athletes and individuals who prepare athletes for competition. Professional and amateur athletes at all levels – from grade school teams to the National Football League – need assistance of expert personal trainers who can make them excel at their sports. Until recently, most people believed that power athletes were born not made. That’s changed. Modern training techniques can make anyone faster, stronger and more powerful. A Certified Specialist in Sports Conditioning through International Sports Science Association can provide powerful tools needed to prepare athletes for professional, college, school, or recreational sports.

Through this internationally recognized certification the Sports Specialist has mastered the basic science and exercise programming techniques behind training athletes for competition. This detailed certification course covers the major bones and muscle of the skeletal and muscular anatomy and how this relates to sport performance. This information is of vital importance in determining the muscles involved in specific sports and exercises to develop them. For example, a baseball pitcher must have strong arms, shoulders & back muscles to throw the ball but he must also possess balance and strong legs and lower body as well as core strength in order to pitch at peak performance.

Having knowledge about the basic methods of measuring speed, endurance, power, strength, and flexibility is essential for this certification. This includes popular tests used by the NFL and other professional teams for measuring sports specific physical fitness. Improving skill is the best way to develop power for sport. They show proven techniques for using video to build skill systematically.

Via this certification one learns scientifically proven methods for building endurance, strength, flexibility, speed, power and agility. These techniques are incredibly effective techniques to help athletes perform to their full potentials. These methods can make even people with modest talents far better than they ever thought possible.

To pass this certification one has to design programs for major athletes involved in such sports as football, basketball, soccer, track and field, baseball and softball, bodybuilding, weight lifting, and golf. The program designs were very specific and included periodized training according to season and needed performance. In other words it is very specific, right down to seasonal training per sport.

An army runs on its stomach and so do athletes. No personal trainer’s knowledge is complete without thorough knowledge of sports nutrition, supplements, and drugs. The material studied is unbiased as well as scientifically accurate information about these vital topics. Please note that personal trainers are not equipped with the knowledge and certification to provide true nutritional advice. Only registered, licensed dietitians are credible sources of this information. However a Certified Personal Trainer has a wide array of resources that we rely on for this aspect of training.

Motivating athletes is a difficult and complex task for trainers and coaches. This is my specialty because I possess a Bachelor of Science degree in Psychology. I am always studying some sort of psychological aspect of sports, fitness and lifestyle. Understanding psychological characteristics of champions and basic psychological techniques to help athletes keep training and withstand the pressures of competitive athletics is imperative as a trainer of athletes. Imaging is tool used by successful athletes. Imaging will help the athlete practice and focus on their sport when they are not on the field. You often see young athletes practice imaging when they play the sport on a pretend level. True athletes never stop this pretending (aka imaging)!

Pain and injury are, unfortunately, part of playing competitive sports. As a personal trainer of athletes we often design programs that help rehabilitate injuries while building or re-building fitness. We help athletes develop fitness systematically without injury. And our work can even help prevent injury! This is extremely important in working with youth athletes as I have to come to know by working with my young sons. Hiring a trainer for your young athlete can be one of the best things you can do because the work the trainer does with the athlete helps them improve performance on the field and strengthens the child so he/she is less likely to injure them self in the sport. Who wouldn’t want injury prevention for their child? And as an added bonus the child is guaranteed* to be more powerful athlete which can lead to significant gains later in life and a stronger athlete – period!

I now have a wonderful opportunity to significantly impact the lives and careers of the people I work with because I am a Certified Specialist in Sports Conditioning. I treasure this opportunity and do my best to provide meaningful service and impart important knowledge about exercise, fitness and training. With my help and guidance, combined with a passion for excellence, I hope to inspire those I guide to higher levels of achievement. Thanks to my certification with International Sports Science Association, I hope to help my clients, family and friends to aspire athletic dreams every day! It is a Win-Win situation!!!

God Bless!

Kathie Ingram Owen

Athlete’s Succeed with the Help of a Personal Trainer

*Results on a consistent program with Kathie are guaranteed!

Athlete’s Succeed with the Help of a Personal Trainer

17 May

Professional and amateur athletes at all levels – from grade school teams to the National Football League – need assistance of expert personal trainers who can make them excel at their sports. Until recently, most people believed that power athletes were born not made. That’s changed. Modern training techniques can make anyone faster, stronger and more powerful. A Certified Specialist in Sports Conditioning through International Sports Science Association can provide powerful tools needed to prepare athletes for professional, college, school, or recreational sports. Kathie received this certification in 2006 and has trained many an athlete since then!

Through this internationally recognized certification the Sports Specialist has mastered the basic science and exercise programming techniques behind training athletes for competition. This detailed certification course covers the major bones and muscle of the skeletal and muscular anatomy and how this relates to sport performance. This information is of vital importance in determining the muscles involved in specific sports and exercises to develop them. For example, a baseball pitcher must have strong arms, shoulders and back muscles to throw the ball but he must also possess balance and strong legs and lower body as well as super core strength in order to pitch at peak performance.

Having knowledge about the basic methods of measuring speed, endurance, power, strength, and flexibility is essential for this certification. This includes popular tests used by the NFL and other professional teams for measuring sports specific physical fitness.

Via this certification one learns scientifically proven methods for building endurance, strength, flexibility, speed, power and agility. These techniques are incredibly effective techniques to help athletes perform to their full potentials. These methods can make even people with modest talents far better than they ever thought possible.

To pass this certification one has to design programs for major athletes involved in such sports as football, basketball, soccer, track and field, baseball and softball, bodybuilding, weight lifting, and golf. The program designs were very specific and included periodized training according to season and needed performance. In other words it is very specific, right down to seasonal training per sport.

An army runs on its stomach and so do athletes. No personal trainer’s knowledge is complete without thorough knowledge of sports nutrition, supplements, and drugs. The material studied is unbiased as well as scientifically accurate information about these vital topics. Please note that personal trainers are not equipped with the knowledge and certification to provide true nutritional advice. Only registered, licensed dietitians are credible sources of this information. However a Certified Personal Trainer has a wide array of resources that we rely on for this aspect of training.

Motivating athletes is a difficult and complex task for trainers and coaches. This is my specialty because I possess a Bachelor of Science degree in Psychology. I am always studying some sort of psychological aspect of sports, fitness and lifestyle. Understanding psychological characteristics of champions and basic psychological techniques to help athletes keep training and withstand the pressures of competitive athletics is imperative as a trainer of athletes. Imaging is tool used by successful athletes. Imaging will help the athlete practice and focus on their sport when they are not on the field. You often see young athletes practice imaging when they play the sport on a pretend level. True athletes never stop this pretending (aka imaging)! I have a close friend of mine who played professional baseball (All Stars and even the World Series) tell me he still plays pretend games in his mind! And he is 46 years old today! 🙂

Pain and injury are, unfortunately, part of playing competitive sports. As a personal trainer of athletes we often design programs that help rehabilitate injuries while building or re-building fitness. We help athletes develop fitness systematically without injury. And our work can even help prevent injury! This is extremely important in working with youth athletes as I have to come to know by working with my sons who are now teens. Hiring a trainer for your young athlete can be one of the best things you can do because the work the trainer does with the athlete helps them improve performance on the field and strengthens the athlete so he/she is less likely to injure them self in the sport. Who wouldn’t want injury prevention? And as an added bonus the athlete is guaranteed* to be more powerful which can lead to significant gains later in life and a stronger athlete – period!

I have a wonderful opportunity to significantly impact the lives and careers of the people I work with because I am a Certified Specialist in Sports Conditioning. I treasure this opportunity and do my best to provide meaningful service and impart important knowledge about exercise, fitness and training. With my help and guidance, combined with a passion for excellence, I hope to inspire those I guide to higher levels of achievement. Thanks to my certification with International Sports Science Association, I hope to help my clients, family and friends to aspire athletic dreams every day! It is a Win-Win situation!!!

Happy Training, Kathie 🙂

Athlete’s Succeed with the Help of a Personal Trainer

*Results on a consistent program with Kathie are guaranteed!

The Biggest Loser is a Lost Cause

23 Sep

The Biggest Loser Premier was on the other night and I watched parts of it on my DVR yesterday and once again the show did not let me down in the crazy way they introduce fitness to severely overweight people!! Am I the only one who sees the danger in all this insanity? Please tell me!! Comments welcome.

I watch the show out of sheer interest to learn more about fitness which is my passion. And I truly love Jillian Michaels and think she is a great trainer. HOWEVER, the show lacks a true perspective on what is really at stake here and that is people’s lives. Ironic huh? Is it going to take someone dying for them to get this? Heck a gal almost did just that – and she did not make the show. “Lucky for her!” I say.

This season the show is all about “paying it forward” – so they say. The only thing I see them paying forward is leaving so many overweight people in the dust.  They went from city to city, picking 3 overweight people out of this huge crowd of people for the show. Then these 3 people  had to compete in a fitness challenge and only 2 people who won these competitions then got to be on the show. Hmmm – how is that paying it forward? I would think the most un-fit person would benefit most from being on the show but then again this show is called The Biggest Loser for a reason!!

I watched a couple of competitions in pain and agony as these poor people struggled!! And I fast forwarded through most of them because it was just too painful to watch.

But then there was one. And talk about painful, this one was agony!!! This poor girl was struggling to climb 500 steps and then started having an asthma attack. Oh but Jillian was there with her inhaler (*insert sarcasm here)! The poor girl then passed out. Paramedics were standing by. How convenient? And, get this, the competition continued!!! Yes it did!! The poor girl was back there dying – literally. And the two guys who were already going to win their way into the show still continued to climb the stairs, while the audience cheered. YES, The Biggest LOSER is in fact The Biggest LOSER!!

Mind you that poor girl had spilled her guts in the diary room on camera on national television about how she had been in an abusive relationship and how she had gotten into this condition in the first place. And now she was left behind – in a trail of dust. Is The Biggest Loser going to really help her? I doubt it. They did not pay it forward, they dropped the ball as far as I am concerned. 

They do this in the name of health? Yeah right! I’m sorry but as a Certified Fitness Trainer I see the lack of help and concern for true fitness on this show. You simply cannot throw an unfit person into a gym and make them start working like an athlete after they have been sitting on the couch for years. You have to condition the body into fitness and slowly get the heart back into shape. You run the risk of heart attack right then and there. This show does not teach this concept and therefore, we have unfit people hitting the gym and pushing the limits in gyms all over America and having serious health issues, including heart attacks. I know CPR and we have to be certified in CPR for this very reason. But I tell you I really do not want to perform it!! Jillian and those trainers on that show have a slew of doctors standing by ready to jump on any condition that arises – I don’t.

Please take it slow when entering a fitness program. You can lose weight and it will drop off fast if you weigh a lot even if you start off slow.

If you like this article you will also like: Losing It with Jillian Michaels (this article tells you how to calculate your heart rate)